Industry Definitions

  • Accessorials - Additional services required more than dock to dock transportation. i.e liftgates, driver assist, storage and white glove.

  • Axle Load - Weight each axle puts on highways.

  • Back Haul - The return trip of a truck transporting freight to origin.

  • Beneficial Owner - Often used in rail or ocean freight referring to the actual owner of the freight being shipped, despite the title of the freight being in another party's name.

  • Bill of Lading (BOL) – Legally binding contract between the shipper and the carrier, broker or agent that defines all aspects of the freight shipping arrangement including what is being shipped and to whom.

  • Blocking and Bracing – Wood or other supports used to keep shipments in place and secure on trailers or in containers throughout the shipping process.

  • Blind Shipment – Shipper and receiver are not aware of one another. The bill of lading lists the party that paid for the shipment as the shipper or receiver of the freight shipment.

  • Bogie – Frame with wheels on which a container is mounted for the over-the-road transport.

  • Brokerage License – Legal document that provides Authority to make land, sea and air freight shipping arrangement. To make land shipping arrangements, the FMSCA (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration) license is required. To make sea shipping arrangements, an NVOCC (Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier) license is required. To make air shipping arrangements, and IAC (Indirect Air Carrier) license is required and obtained through the International Air Transport Association.

  • Bulk Freight – Freight in form of liquid or a granular form. i.e resin, sand, crude oil

  • Cartage – Transporting freight within same city or area.

  • Chassis – A frame with wheels and locking devices to secure a container during shipping by rail.

  • Classification  - Used for less than truckload (LTL) shipments for purpose of applying transportation charges.

  • Common Carrier – An LTL common carrier consolidates and deconsolidates freight for multiple companies or brands while offering a set route and rate. They are often motor carriers, trucking companies or freight service providers that operate on a similar schedule with a strict ser of guidelines.

  • Concealed Damage – Damage not visible to the item(s) until the package is opened.

  • Consignee – Party who is financially responsible for the receipt of freight shipment, usually a receiver of shipment as well.

  • Consignor – Party who sends goods to the consignee and is the legal owner until the consignee pays in full.

  • Consolidation – Two or more shipments are combined to save money on freight shipping costs. This shipping method is used in a less than truckload (LTL) with multiple stops before reaching the final destination.

  • Container - Truck trailer with no wheels used for intermodal shipping and come in standard sizes to ensure they fit on standard trucks, rail cars and container ships.

  • Cross-Town – Delivery of a container or trailer from one railroad as part of the shipping route.

  • Cubic Capacity – Total freight load capacity of any trucks, train, or ship which cannot be legally exceeded.

  • Customs Broker – A person or company who is licensed by the U.S. Treasury Department to act on behalf of freight importers and exporters with respect to U.S. Customs transactions. A customs broker must be used for all shipment going to and from U.S.A.

  • Embargo – Any event that prevents freight from being accepted or handled. Most often, an embargo is due to international conflict or sanctions imposed on a particularly country or group of people. However, embargo events may also include floods, tornadoes or congested highways.

  • Exceptions – A problem such as a shortage or damage is noted on the bill of lading before it is signed to designate there is a problem with a shipment.

  • Gross Vehicle Weight Rating – Rating refers to the vehicle’s maximum operating weight as specified by the manufacturer. Weight includes the driver, fuel, engine, body, chassis, and cargo but excludes the weight of the trailer.

  • Inbound Freight - Shipments coming from vendors.

  • Interline – Termed used when the initial carrier of a freight shipment transfers the freight to another carrier to get it to its final destination.

  • Intermodal Transportation – Freight shipped using two or more modes of transportation. i.e. truck-rail-truck / truck-rail-truck-air-truck.

  • Motor Carrier – A person providing motor vehicle transportation for compensation.

  • Motor Property Broker – Person who makes freight shipping arrangements on behalf of a person or company. The broker determines the need of the client, has experience in the industry and negotiates shipping rates with a carrier who can meet the client’s requirements.

  • Nested – Less than truckload shipping in which materials are stacked so that one item goes inside another. Reduces amount of space taken by the combined freight and makes LTL shipping more efficient.

  • Not Otherwise Indicated (NOI) – General class rate assigned to any freight that has no rate listed in the NMFC. Freight rating is based on density, freight stowability, ease of handling and liability.

  • Tariff – Cost and contract of a freight shipment for the shipper and the carrier.

  • Through Rate – Applies tot eh distance between the point of origin and the delivery destination.

  • Time-Critical – Set to the earliest possible delivery time to accommodate particular shipping requirements.

  • Time-Definite – Deliveries guarantee that the delivery will occur on a specific day or time of day.

  • Transit Time – Total amount of time from freight being picked up to freight being delivered.

  • Truckload (TLT)  - Transportation of goods what will fill up a 48’ or 53’ trailer by volume or weight.

  • Volume Rate – Rates that are made subject to a minimum weight of 7,000 lbs or more, or cubic volume exceeding 750 cubic feet.

  • Warehousing – Storage of goods in a facility for a specified period of time or until they are ready to ship.

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